Academic Books & Online Resources




All copyright permission must be cleared and, if necessary, paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS (Data Access Control System), ARS (Artists Rights Society), and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. It is also the author’s responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by particular institutions.

Download the permissions instructions here.


Submission of figures in an electronic format will help us to ensure that your work is produced to the highest possible standard. This page contains information on how best to prepare your artwork for electronic submission.

Most figure file formats are acceptable, although TIFF is preferable.

TIFFs (Tagged Image File Format) are used for bitmap, greyscale, and colour images. To save files in TIFF format, go to the ‘Save As’ or ‘Export’ commands under ‘File’.

Before submitting artwork, please make sure that your image(s) fulfil the following criteria:


A number of different file formats are acceptable, including:

*preferred file format. Note that .jpg is not a file format listed as files produced as JPGs condense every time they are opened (and thus lose quality).

A note about Resolution and Quality: PPI (Pixels Per Inch) vs DPI (Dots Per Inch)

Specific Types of Artwork

Bar graphs

Avoid the use of gray or color in bar graphs. Instead, please use solid black, solid white, and patterned (e.g., horizontally or diagonally striped) bars.


Line art

Line art is best reproduced when it is submitted as crisp black-and-white images and contains no unnecessary gray shading.

Line art


If your image requires the use of many lines (as line graphs often do), please choose patterns that are easily distinguished from each other. Patterns with similar characteristics are hard to differentiate after reduction.


For additional useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Equations and tables

All equations to be formatted using MathType only; image versions should be avoided.

All tables to be in editable format in either Word or Excel; image and pdf versions should be avoided.


Follow these rules for figures:

Figure table

Figures must:

To find out more on figure submission, please visit the Instructions to Authors for the particular journal to which you are submitting. View the full list of Journals.